How to reprogram your DNA

сәлем керемет адам,

This weeks paper is not purely a computer science topic, but never the less super interesting. You may have heard about CRISPR Cas9 and how it quite likely will influence big parts of biochemistry and genetic research. This weeks paper is an article that stared this whole momevemnt which finally lead up to a nobel prize for the authors Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna.

TBH without this Youtube video I would not have been able to understand it.

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Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids by using CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) to guide the silencing of invading nucleic acids. We show here that in asubset of these systems, the mature crRNA that is base-paired to trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA)forms a two-RNA structure that directs the CRISPR-associated protein Cas9 to introduce double-stranded (ds) breaks in target DNA. At sites complementary to the crRNA-guide sequence,the Cas9 HNH nuclease domain cleaves the complementary strand, whereas the Cas9 RuvC-like domain cleaves the non complementary strand. The dual-tracrRNA:crRNA, when engineered as a single RNA chimera, also directs sequence-specific Cas9 dsDNA cleavage. Our study reveals a family of endonucleases that use dual-RNAs for site-specific DNA cleavage and highlights the potential to exploit the system for RNA-programmable genome editing.

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